'; ?> geneimprint : Hot off the Press http://www.geneimprint.com/site/hot-off-the-press Daily listing of the most recent articles in epigenetics and imprinting, collected from the PubMed database. en-us Fri, 16 Feb 2018 22:20:45 PST Fri, 16 Feb 2018 22:20:45 PST jirtle@radonc.duke.edu james001@jirtle.com Analysis of H19/Igf2 Methylation Status in the Sperm of Cloned Goats and Their Offspring. Wan Y, Deng M, Zhang G, Ren C, Liu Z, Wang F
Cell Reprogram (Feb 2018)

The H19/insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) gene plays vital roles during development, but their expression and methylation status have not been elucidated in male cloned animals. In this study, we investigated the methylation status of imprinting control region (ICR) and differentially methylated region (DMR) of the H19/Igf2 locus in the sperm and testes of naturally reproduced Saanen dairy goats (NG, control), transgenic cloned dairy goats (CG), and the first generation of mating the CGs with the female NGs (FG). Bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction revealed that the H19 ICR was highly methylated in the sperm of all testing groups (97.07% ± 0.47%, 93.73% ± 0.85%, and 96.67% ± 0.54%). Notably, the methylation level of H19 ICR was decreased in the testes of CG goats compared with that of NG goats (73.83% ± 3.28% vs. 97.27% ± 0.71%, p < 0.05), while the Igf2 DMR2 was highly methylated in the sperm of these three groups (89.57% ± 1.74%, 87.23% ± 1.11%, and 83.2% ± 1.27%). However, the Igf2 DMR2 was abnormally hypomethylated in the testes of CG goats (27.33% ± 1.005%, p < 0.001), and moderately methylated in FG goats (53.1% ± 1.47%, p < 0.01) compared with that in NG goats (82.67% ± 0.70%). Furthermore, we found significantly decreased expression of H19 (p < 0.01) and increased expression of Igf2 (p < 0.01) in CG goats. Thus, we infer that somatic cell nuclear transfer has clear effect on genomic imprinting in the testes, but not sperm of cloned goats.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Current and Future Applications of Biomedical Engineering for Proteomic Profiling: Predictive Biomarkers in Neuro-Traumatology. Ganau M, Syrmos N, Paris M, Ganau L, Ligarotti GKI, Moghaddamjou A, Chibbaro S, Soddu A, Ambu R, Prisco L
Medicines (Basel) (Feb 2018)

This systematic review aims to summarize the impact of nanotechnology and biomedical engineering in defining clinically meaningful predictive biomarkers in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), a critical worldwide health problem with an estimated 10 billion people affected annually worldwide. Data were collected through a review of the existing English literature performed on Scopus, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, and/or Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Only experimental articles revolving around the management of TBI, in which the role of new devices based on innovative discoveries coming from the field of nanotechnology and biomedical engineering were highlighted, have been included and analyzed in this study. Based on theresults gathered from this research on innovative methods for genomics, epigenomics, and proteomics, their future application in this field seems promising. Despite the outstanding technical challenges of identifying reliable biosignatures for TBI and the mixed nature of studies herein described (single cells proteomics, biofilms, sensors, etc.), the clinical implementation of those discoveries will allow us to gain confidence in the use of advanced neuromonitoring modalities with a potential dramatic improvement in the management of those patients.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Perceived Racial Discrimination and DNA Methylation Among African American Women in the InterGEN Study. de Mendoza VB, Huang Y, Crusto CA, Sun YV, Taylor JY
Biol Res Nurs (Mar 2018)

Experiences of racial discrimination have been associated with poor health outcomes. Little is known, however, about how perceived racial discrimination influences DNA methylation (DNAm) among African Americans (AAs). We examined the association of experiences of discrimination with DNAm among AA women in the Intergenerational Impact of Genetic and Psychological Factors on Blood Pressure (InterGEN) study.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Association of CD8T-cells with bone erosion in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Joo YB, Park Y, Kim K, Bang SY, Bae SC, Lee HS
Int J Rheum Dis (Feb 2018)

Bone erosion is a major problem worsening quality of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients' lives. However, causal factors responsible for bone erosion in RA have remained unclear. We aimed to examine genetic variants conferring bone erosion in RA using a Korean genome-wide association study (GWAS) and to search for possible biological mechanisms underlying the development of bone erosion.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Roadmap for investigating epigenome deregulation and environmental origins of cancer. Herceg Z, Ghantous A, Wild CP, Sklias A, Casati L, Duthie SJ, Fry R, Issa JP, Kellermayer R, Koturbash I, Kondo Y, Lepeule J, Lima SCS, Marsit CJ, Rakyan V, Saffery R, Taylor JA, Teschendorff AE, Ushijima T, Vineis P, Walker CL, Waterland RA, Wiemels J, Ambatipudi S, Degli Esposti D, Hernandez-Vargas H
Int J Cancer (Mar 2018)

The interaction between the (epi)genetic makeup of an individual and his/her environmental exposure record (exposome) is accepted as a determinant factor for a significant proportion of human malignancies. Recent evidence has highlighted the key role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating gene-environment interactions and translating exposures into tumorigenesis. There is also growing evidence that epigenetic changes may be risk factor-specific ("fingerprints") that should prove instrumental in the discovery of new biomarkers in cancer. Here, we review the state of the science of epigenetics associated with environmental stimuli and cancer risk, highlighting key developments in the field. Critical knowledge gaps and research needs are discussed and advances in epigenomics that may help in understanding the functional relevance of epigenetic alterations. Key elements required for causality inferences linking epigenetic changes to exposure and cancer are discussed and how these alterations can be incorporated in carcinogen evaluation and in understanding mechanisms underlying epigenome deregulation by the environment.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Prader-Willi syndrome and early-onset morbid obesity NIH rare disease consortium: A review of natural history study. Butler MG, Kimonis V, Dykens E, Gold JA, Miller J, Tamura R, Driscoll DJ
Am J Med Genet A (Feb 2018)

We describe the National Institutes of Health rare disease consortium for Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) developed to address concerns regarding medical care, diagnosis, growth and development, awareness, and natural history. PWS results from errors in genomic imprinting leading to loss of paternally expressed genes due to 15q11-q13 deletion, maternal disomy 15 or imprinting defects. The 8 year study was conducted at four national sites on individuals with genetically confirmed PWS and early-onset morbid obesity (EMO) with data accumulated to gain a better understanding of the natural history, cause and treatment of PWS. Enrollment of 355 subjects with PWS and 36 subjects with EMO began in September 2006 with study completion in July 2014. Clinical, genetic, cognitive, behavior, and natural history data were systematically collected along with PWS genetic subtypes, pregnancy and birth history, mortality, obesity, and cognitive status with study details as important endpoints in both subject groups. Of the 355 individuals with PWS, 217 (61%) had the 15q11-q13 deletion, 127 (36%) had maternal disomy 15, and 11 (3%) had imprinting defects. Six deaths were reported in our PWS cohort with 598 cumulative years of study exposure and one death in the EMO group with 42 years of exposure. To our knowledge, this description of a longitudinal study in PWS represents the largest and most comprehensive cohort useful for investigators in planning comparable studies in other rare disorders. Ongoing studies utilizing this database should have a direct impact on care and services, diagnosis, treatment, genotype-phenotype correlations, and clinical outcomes in PWS.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Biological function and histone recognition of family IV bromodomain-containing proteins. Lloyd JT, Glass KC
J Cell Physiol (Mar 2018)

Bromodomain proteins function as epigenetic readers that recognize acetylated histone tails to facilitate the transcription of target genes. There are approximately 60 known human bromodomains, which are divided into eight sub-families based on structural conservation. The bromodomain-containing proteins in family IV include seven members (BRPF1, BRPF2, BRPF3, BRD7, BRD9, ATAD2, and ATAD2b). The bromodomains of each of these proteins recognize and bind acetyllysine residues on histone tails protruding from the nucleosome. However, the histone marks recognized by each bromodomain protein can be very different. The BRPF1 subunit of the MOZ histone acetyltransferase (HAT) recognizes acetylated histones H2AK5ac, H4K12ac, H3K14ac, H4K8ac, and H4K5ac. While the bromodomain of BRD7, a member of the SWI/SNF complex, was shown to preferentially recognize acetylated histones H3K9ac, H3K14ac, H4K8ac, H4K12ac, and H4K16ac. The bromodomains of BRPF2 and BRPF3 have similar sequences, and function as part of the HBO1 HAT complex, but there is limited data on which histone ligands they bind. Similarly, there is little known about the histone targets of the BRD9 and ATAD2b bromodomain proteins. Interestingly, the ATAD2 bromodomain was recently shown to preferentially bind to the di-acetylated H4K5acK12ac mark found in newly synthesized histones following DNA replication. However, despite the physiological importance of the family IV bromodomains, little is known about how they function at the molecular or atomic level. In this review, we summarize our understanding of how family IV bromodomains recognize and select for acetyllysine marks and discuss the importance of acetylated histone recognition for their biological functions.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
NGS-based methylation profiling differentiates TCF3-HLF and TCF3-PBX1 positive B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Kachroo P, Szymczak S, Heinsen FA, Forster M, Bethune J, Hemmrich-Stanisak G, Baker L, Schrappe M, Stanulla M, Franke A
Epigenomics (Feb 2018)

To determine whether methylation differences between mostly fatal TCF3-HLF and curable TCF3-PBX1 pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia subtypes can be associated with differential gene expression and remission.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Optimized methods of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) for profiling histone modifications in industrial microalgae Nannochloropsis spp. Wei L, Xu J
J Phycol (Feb 2018)

Epigenetic factors such as histone modifications play integral roles in plant development and stress response, yet their implications in algae remain poorly understood. In the industrial oleaginous microalgae Nannochloropsis spp., the lack of an efficient methodology for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), which determines the specific genomic location of various histone modifications, has hindered probing the epigenetic basis of their photosynthetic carbon conversion and storage as oil. Here, a detailed ChIP protocol was developed for Nannochloropsis oceanica, which represents a reliable approach for the analysis of histone modifications, chromatin state, and transcription factor binding sites at the epigenetic level. Using ChIP-qPCR, genes related to photosynthetic carbon fixation in this microalga were systematically assessed. Furthermore, a ChIP-Seq protocol was established and optimized, which generated a genome-wide profile of histone-modification events, using histone mark H3K9Ac as an example. These results are the first step for appreciation of the chromatin landscape in industrial oleaginous microalgae and for epigenetics-based microalgal feedstock development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Parent-of-origin-environment interactions in case-parent triads with or without independent controls. Gjerdevik M, Haaland Ã˜A, Romanowska J, Lie RT, Jugessur A, Gjessing HK
Ann Hum Genet (Mar 2018)

With case-parent triad data, one can frequently deduce parent of origin of the child's alleles. This allows a parent-of-origin (PoO) effect to be estimated as the ratio of relative risks associated with the alleles inherited from the mother and the father, respectively. A possible cause of PoO effects is DNA methylation, leading to genomic imprinting. Because environmental exposures may influence methylation patterns, gene-environment interaction studies should be extended to allow for interactions between PoO effects and environmental exposures (i.e., PoOxE). One should thus search for loci where the environmental exposure modifies the PoO effect. We have developed an extensive framework to analyze PoOxE effects in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), based on complete or incomplete case-parent triads with or without independent control triads. The interaction approach is based on analyzing triads in each exposure stratum using maximum likelihood estimation in a log-linear model. Interactions are then tested applying a Wald-based posttest of parameters across strata. Our framework includes a complete setup for power calculations. We have implemented the models in the R software package Haplin. To illustrate our PoOxE test, we applied the new methodology to top hits from our previous GWAS, assessing whether smoking during the periconceptional period modifies PoO effects on cleft palate only.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Thinking BIG rheumatology: how to make functional genomics data work for you. Winter DR
Arthritis Res Ther (Feb 2018)

High-throughput sequencing assays have become an increasingly common part of biological research across multiple fields. Even as the resulting sequences pile up in public databases, it is not always obvious how to make use of these data sets. Functional genomics offers approaches to integrate these "big" data into our understanding of rheumatic diseases. This review aims to provide a primer on thinking about big data from functional genomics in the context of rheumatology, using examples from the field's literature as well as the author's own work to illustrate the execution of functional genomics research. Study design is crucial to ensure the right samples are used to address the question of interest. In addition, sequencing assays produce a variety of data types, from gene expression to 3D chromatin structure and single-cell technologies, that can be integrated into a model of the underlying gene regulatory networks. The best approach for this analysis uses the scientific process: bioinformatic methods should be used in an iterative, hypothesis-driven manner to uncover the disease mechanism. Finally, the future of functional genomics will see big data fully integrated into rheumatology, leading to computationally trained researchers and interactive databases. The goal of this review is not to provide a manual, but to enhance the familiarity of readers with functional genomic approaches and provide a better sense of the challenges and possibilities.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Towards Personalized Medicine for Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Pharmacogenomic Stratification of Patients. Olaizola P, Perugorria MJ, Banales JM
Hepatology (Feb 2018)

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Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Hallmarks of cancer: The CRISPR generation. Moses C, Garcia-Bloj B, Harvey AR, Blancafort P
Eur J Cancer (Feb 2018)

The hallmarks of cancer were proposed as a logical framework to guide research efforts that aim to understand the molecular mechanisms and derive treatments for this highly complex disease. Recent technological advances, including comprehensive sequencing of different cancer subtypes, have illuminated how genetic and epigenetic alterations are associated with specific hallmarks of cancer. However, as these associations are purely descriptive, one particularly exciting development is the emergence of genome editing technologies, which enable rapid generation of precise genetic and epigenetic modifications to assess the consequences of these perturbations on the cancer phenotype. The most recently developed of these tools, the system of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR), consists of an RNA-guided endonuclease that can be repurposed to edit both genome and epigenome with high specificity, and facilitates the functional interrogation of multiple loci in parallel. This system has the potential to dramatically accelerate progress in cancer research, whether by modelling the genesis and progression of cancer in vitro and in vivo, screening for novel therapeutic targets, conducting functional genomics/epigenomics, or generating targeted cancer therapies. Here, we discuss CRISPR research on each of the ten hallmarks of cancer, outline potential barriers for its clinical implementation and speculate on the advances it may allow in cancer research in the near future.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Natural Agents-Mediated Targeting of Histone Deacetylases. Farooqi AA, Naqvi SK, Perk AA, Yanar O, Tabassum S, Ahmad MS, Mansoor Q, Ashry MS, Ismail M, Naoum GE, Arafat WO
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) (Feb 2018)

In the past few years, basic and clinical scientists have witnessed landmark achievements in many research projects, such as those conducted by the US National Institutes of Health Roadmap Epigenomics Mapping Consortium, the International Human Epigenome Consortium, The Cancer Genome Atlas Network and the International Cancer Genome Consortium, which have provided near-complete resolution of epigenetic landscape in different diseases. Furthermore, genome sequencing of tumors has provided compelling evidence related to frequent existence of mutations in readers, erasers and writers of epigenome in different cancers. Histone acetylation is an intricate mechanism modulated by two opposing sets of enzymes and deeply studied as a key biological phenomenon in 1964 by Vincent Allfrey and colleagues. The research group suggested that this protein modification contributed substantially in transcriptional regulation. Subsequently, histone deacetylases (HDACs), histone acetyltransferases and acetyl-Lys-binding proteins were identified as transcriptional mediators, which further deepened our comprehension regarding biochemical modifications. Overwhelmingly increasing high-impact research is improving our understanding of this molecularly controlled mechanism; moreover, quantification and identification of lysine acetylation by mass spectrometry has added new layers of information. We partition this multi-component review into how both activity and expression of HDAC are targeted using natural agents. We also set spotlight on how oncogenic fusion proteins tactfully utilize HDAC-associated nano-machinery to modulate expression of different genes and how HDAC inhibitors regulate TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. HDAC inhibitors have been reported to upregulate expression of TRAIL receptors and protect TRAIL from proteasomal degradation. Deeper understanding of HDAC biology will be useful for stratification and selection of patients who are responders, non-responders and poor-responders for HDACi therapy, and for the rational design of combination studies using HDACi.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Differences in MWCNT- and SWCNT-induced DNA methylation alterations in association with the nuclear deposition. Öner D, Ghosh M, Bové H, Moisse M, Boeckx B, Duca RC, Poels K, Luyts K, Putzeys E, Van Landuydt K, Vanoirbeek JA, Ameloot M, Lambrechts D, Godderis L, Hoet PH
Part Fibre Toxicol (Feb 2018)

Subtle DNA methylation alterations mediated by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exposure might contribute to pathogenesis and disease susceptibility. It is known that both multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) interact with nucleus. Such, nuclear-CNT interaction may affect the DNA methylation effects. In order to understand the epigenetic toxicity, in particular DNA methylation alterations, of SWCNTs and short MWCNTs, we performed global/genome-wide, gene-specific DNA methylation and RNA-expression analyses after exposing human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o- cell line). In addition, the presence of CNTs on/in the cell nucleus was evaluated in a label-free way using femtosecond pulsed laser microscopy.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Rules governing the mechanism of epigenetic reprogramming memory. Luu PL, Gerovska D, Schöler HR, Araúzo-Bravo MJ
Epigenomics (Feb 2018)

Disclosing the mechanisms that regulate reprogramming memory.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Chromosome Evolution in Marsupials. Deakin JE
Genes (Basel) (Feb 2018)

Marsupials typically possess very large, distinctive chromosomes that make them excellent subjects for cytogenetic analysis, and the high level of conservation makes it relatively easy to track chromosome evolution. There are two speciose marsupial families with contrasting rates of karyotypic evolution that could provide insight into the mechanisms driving genome reshuffling and speciation. The family Dasyuridae displays exceptional karyotype conservation with all karyotyped species possessing a 2= 14 karyotype similar to that predicted for the ancestral marsupial. In contrast, the family Macropodidae has experienced a higher rate of genomic rearrangement and one genus of macropods, the rock-wallabies (), has experienced extensive reshuffling. For at least some recently divergedspecies, there is still gene flow despite hybrid fertility issues, making this species group an exceptional model for studying speciation. This review highlights the unique chromosome features of marsupial chromosomes, particularly for these two contrasting families, and the value that a combined cytogenetics, genomics, and epigenomics approach will have for testing models of genome evolution and speciation.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Maternal provision of non-sex-specific transformer messenger RNA in sex determination of the wasp Asobara tabida. Geuverink E, Verhulst EC, van Leussen M, van de Zande L, Beukeboom LW
Insect Mol Biol (Feb 2018)

In many insect species maternal provision of sex-specifically spliced messenger RNA (mRNA) of sex determination genes is an essential component of the sex determination mechanism. In haplodiploid Hymenoptera, maternal provision in combination with genomic imprinting has been shown for the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis, known as maternal effect genomic imprinting sex determination (MEGISD). Here, we characterize the sex determination cascade of Asobara tabida, another hymenopteran parasitoid. We show the presence of the conserved sex determination genes doublesex (dsx), transformer (tra) and transformer-2 (tra2) orthologues in As. tabida. Of these, At-dsx and At-tra are sex-specifically spliced, indicating a conserved function in sex determination. At-tra and At-tra2 mRNA is maternally provided to embryos but, in contrast to most studied insects, As. tabida females transmit a non-sex-specific splice form of At-tra mRNA to the eggs. In this respect, As. tabida sex determination differs from the MEGISD mechanism. How the paternal genome can induce female development in the absence of maternal provision of sex-specifically spliced mRNA remains an open question. Our study reports a hitherto unknown variant of maternal effect sex determination and accentuates the diversity of insect sex determination mechanisms.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Integrative analysis of exogenous, endogenous, tumour and immune factors for precision medicine. Ogino S, Nowak JA, Hamada T, Phipps AI, Peters U, Milner DA, Giovannucci EL, Nishihara R, Giannakis M, Garrett WS, Song M
Gut (Feb 2018)

Immunotherapy strategies targeting immune checkpoints such as theand(programmed cell death 1 ligand 1, PD-L1)/(programmed cell death 1, PD-1) T-cell coreceptor pathways are revolutionising oncology. The approval of pembrolizumab use for solid tumours with high-level microsatellite instability or mismatch repair deficiency by the US Food and Drug Administration highlights promise of precision immuno-oncology. However, despite evidence indicating influences of exogenous and endogenous factors such as diet, nutrients, alcohol, smoking, obesity, lifestyle, environmental exposures and microbiome on tumour-immune interactions, integrative analyses of those factors and immunity lag behind. Immune cell analyses in the tumour microenvironment have not adequately been integrated into large-scale studies. Addressing this gap, the transdisciplinary field of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) offers research frameworks to integrate tumour immunology into population health sciences, and link the exposures and germline genetics (eg,genotypes) to tumour and immune characteristics. Multilevel research using bioinformatics, in vivo pathology and omics (genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) technologies is possible with use of tissue, peripheral blood circulating cells, cell-free plasma, stool, sputum, urine and other body fluids. This immunology-MPE model can synergise with experimental immunology, microbiology and systems biology. GI neoplasms represent exemplary diseases for the immunology-MPE model, given rich microbiota and immune tissues of intestines, and the well-established carcinogenic role of intestinal inflammation. Proof-of-principle studies on colorectal cancer provided insights into immunomodulating effects of aspirin, vitamin D, inflammatory diets and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The integrated immunology-MPE model can contribute to better understanding of environment-tumour-immune interactions, and effective immunoprevention and immunotherapy strategies for precision medicine.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Evolutionary Epigenomics of Retrotransposon-Mediated Methylation Spreading in Rice. Choi JY, Purugganan MD
Mol Biol Evol (Feb 2018)

Plant genomes contain numerous transposable elements (TEs), and many hypotheses on the evolutionary drivers that restrict TE activity have been postulated. Few models, however, have focused on the evolutionary epigenomic interaction between the plant host and its TE. The host genome recruits epigenetic factors, such as methylation, to silence TEs but methylation can spread beyond the TE sequence and influence the expression of nearby host genes. In this study, we investigated this epigenetic trade-off between TE and proximal host gene silencing by studying the epigenomic regulation of repressing long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons (RTs) in Oryza sativa. Results showed significant evidence of methylation spreading originating from the LTR-RT sequences, and the extent of spreading was dependent on five factors: 1) LTR-RT family, 2) time since the LTR-RT insertion, 3) recombination rate of the LTR-RT region, 4) level of LTR-RT sequence methylation, and 5) chromosomal location. Methylation spreading had negative effects by reducing host gene expression, but only on host genes with LTR-RT inserted in its introns. Our results also suggested high levels of LTR-RT methylation might have a role in suppressing TE-mediated deleterious ectopic recombination. In the end, despite the methylation spreading, no strong epigenetic trade-off was detected and majority of LTR-RT may have only minor epigenetic effects on nearby host genes.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST